What are the 7 ps of marketing?

     
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“The kinh doanh mix” aims to provide a complete framework for modern business models & sale strategies across the entire customer journey.

While there are many variations of the marketing mix, the most common framework consists of seven elements, collectively known as the 7Ps. The idea is that a business can adopt the 7Ps principle & use it as a seven-step framework for building a successful sale strategy that covers every stage of the buying process.

In this article, we look at how you can use the kinh doanh set lớn build a complete strategy, plus a few tips for improving the 7Ps Model.

What is the 7Ps model?

The 7Ps sale Mã Sản Phẩm is a framework designed to lớn help businesses build a complete sale strategy, from start lớn finish. In theory, a new business should be able khổng lồ use the 7Ps Mã Sản Phẩm khổng lồ devise an entire kinh doanh strategy from scratch.

The name derives from the seven elements outlined in the 7Ps Mã Sản Phẩm, which all begin with the letter “P”:

ProductPromotionPricePlacePeopleProcessPhysical evidence
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Source: Smart Insights

The 7Ps Mã Sản Phẩm is an evolution upon the 4Ps Model originally founded by E. Jerome McCarthy in 1960, in his book Marketing: A Managerial Approach. The original marketing set concept was created during a time when the majority of businesses sold physical products & it was updated in the 1980s as more service-oriented businesses started khổng lồ emerge.

The evolution from 4Ps khổng lồ 7Ps

As mentioned in the previous section, Jerome McCarthy’s 4Ps model was created for businesses selling products to lớn consumers.

As Smart Insights explains:

“The 4Ps were designed at a time where businesses were more likely lớn sell products, rather than services & the role of customer service in helping brvà development wasn’t so well known.”

The original 4Ps included:

ProductPlacePricePromotionSource: Hurree

These same four elements still exist as the primary components of the 7Ps models. As business & consumer markets have sầu evolved, the application of the marketing set has adapted, too. In 1981, Bernard H. Booms & Mary J. Bitner expanded McCarthy’s mã sản phẩm inkhổng lồ the 7Ps marketing phối we know today.

While the original 4Ps remain in place, Booms and Bitner added a further three Ps in the mix:

PeopleProcessPhysical evidenceSource: Hurree

The 7Ps Model was created khổng lồ reflect the emergence of service-oriented businesses where “Product” can mean either prospects or services. The expanded mã sản phẩm also increases the emphasis upon customer service, as a result of increased consumer power and competition in every industry.

Like its predecessor, the 7Ps kinh doanh phối has adapted khổng lồ the evolution of consumer trends và new technologies.

In his book, Digital Marketing: Strategy, Implementation & Practice, digital strategist & co-founder of Smart Insights, Dave sầu Chaffey, refreshed the 7Ps mã sản phẩm for the modern digital age.

Source: Digital Marketing: Strategy, Implementation và Practice, Dave sầu Chaffey

Some marketers argue that the 7Ps mã sản phẩm is outdated but, even in 20đôi mươi, it’s the backbone for business models và kinh doanh theories. In fact, even the older 4Ps Model is as relevant today as it was in 1960, even if it doesn’t cover the entire sale set in the modern, digital age.

This will become more obvious throughout the rest of this article as we look at each of the 7Ps individually và, later, assess whether there are any gaps or weaknesses in the model.

Applying the 7Ps khổng lồ digital marketing

Now that you understand the basic premise of the sale set, let’s take a closer look at the 7Ps Model that’s most widely associated with it today. Let’s start by reminding ourselves of what the 7Ps st& for and explain a little bit about what they actually mean.

Product: The sản phẩm or service, including its features, chất lượng selling points và the overall quality on offer.Promotion: The methods used to promote the sản phẩm across multiple channels.Price: The long-term pricing strategy of the product in question, including sales, discounts & deals.Place: Where people find your hàng hóa, learn about it and, ultimately, buy it.People: The people who come into lớn tương tác with your target customers – both directly và indirectly.Process: Your methods for delivering the product to lớn customers and providing the best possible experience.Physical evidence: Tangible items & experiences that tell customers your offer is real – for digital, this can include website visits, confirmation emails, testimonials, customer Reviews và more.

Now, it’s worth reaffirming the point that the original 4Ps are solid figures in the updated 7Ps model but you will find some variation in the three additional Ps added into lớn this Model, depending on where you get your information from.

We’re sticking to lớn the original 7Ps Model for this part of the article but we’ll look at ways you can adapt and expvà it even further khổng lồ meet the needs of your business later on.

#1: Product

The first P.. in this kinh doanh mã sản phẩm is “Product” and this is almost unanimously featured as the first P.. in all versions of the marketing phối. This is because one of the core principles of this theory is that kinh doanh begins with your hàng hóa.

At the kết thúc of the day, if you’ve got a lousy sản phẩm – especially in this day & age – you’re going to have a hard time sale it.

The key elements of the product in your sale mix can vary, depending on which market you’re & who your target audiences are. But, at the very least, you should invest good resources inkhổng lồ the following:

Quality: Higher hàng hóa quality makes everything else you bởi vì in sale & sales so much easier.Image: This refers to how people see your sản phẩm and this is what separates products like the iPhone from Android devices or sports cars from cheaper, more practical vehicles.Branding: Closely linked khổng lồ “image”, this is the br& story you build around your hàng hóa and how it incorporates with your wider br& image.Features: The features of your sản phẩm or service, which should place a heavy emphasis on USPs và benefits for your target customers.Variants: The different versions of your hàng hóa or service, who they target and how you differentiate them.

The menu could go on-and-on for Product and if you go baông chồng to lớn Dave sầu Chaffey’s version of the 7Ps we looked at earlier, you’ll see this is the longest các mục in his visualisation.

His danh mục isn’t definitive sầu or complete either; it’s up khổng lồ you to lớn decide which items belong on this danh sách for your business. The point is that your product (or service) is the focal point of your kinh doanh strategies & you want to do everything you can to lớn ensure the right màn chơi of unique is there.

In terms of the branding aspects, this varies from one business lớn the next. Companies like Apple và Nike put huge resources into the branding of their products, not only the br& name itself. This isn’t necessarily the case companies like Google, Amazon or Intel that put more emphasis on market penetration.

#2: Promotion

Promotion refers to your kinh doanh, advertising và sales activities across all channels. Once again, your channels of choice will vary depending on the nature of your business. For example, a B2B company may prioritise account-based sale while a B2C company in the same industry might focus more on direct kinh doanh methods.

Above sầu all, you need to lớn be present where your target audiences are active and interested in a brand lượt thích yours.

Given the rapid evolution of multi-channel kinh doanh, this is one area where a version of the 7Ps mã sản phẩm from as recent as five sầu years ago can quickly look dated.

Here are some key elements khổng lồ consider in 2021:

Multi-channel marketing: The consumer journey takes place across more devices, sessions and platforms than ever before, making it all the more important that you’re present on the channels that matter most lớn your target audiences.Personalised experiences: The more relevant you can make experiences to lớn individual users, the more engaging your messages become & the more “locked-in” customers are to your br&.Integrated marketing và sales: Today’s brands need seamless integration between sale & sales strategies to prevent leads getting lost along the funnel.Lead nurturing: A lot of brands make the mistake of focusing all of their attention on lead generation without dedicated enough resources khổng lồ lead nurturing – especially customer retention.Branding: Today’s consumers want authentic experiences và brands are scrutinised for their ethical practices, making br& image more important – & fragile – than ever.PR: Brands don’t always give quảng cáo the attention it deserves in the digital age but it’s an invaluable tool for building, maintaining & even changing your brand image.Automation: As the digital marketing workload increases, brands need to lớn automate as many repetitive sầu tasks as they can to lớn manage multi-channel campaigns successfully, maintain costs và achieve sầu the fasdemo possible growth.

There’s no doubt that the Promotion aspect of the 7Ps model is getting more challenging with every year that passes, as công nghệ và consumer trends become more complex.

The days of running a few TV ads và blasting out some unsolicited email campaigns are long behind us.

Serene is a productivity tool that helps teams & individuals get more done every day

Today’s brands need khổng lồ use the right marketing & sales software to maximise productivity, automate repetitive sầu tasks và manage campaigns across an ever-growing number of channels.

Take a look at some of our software recommendation articles for help with this:

#3: Price

Price is pretty self-explanatory but the mistake companies normally make is underestimating the amount of detail that goes into lớn pricing a single sản phẩm – let alone an entire range of products or services.

Here’s a menu of just some of the things you need to lớn strategise:

Positioning: Where vị you see your hàng hóa, service or brvà positioning in the market?Competition: The price of rival products, br& image of rival brands và competing quality of the products on offer.Justification: As soon as someone spends money on goods or a service, they instinctively spend time trying to justify the expense – & you need khổng lồ make sure the result is worth the asking price.Discounts: Discounts should be strategic and planned out to lớn maximise interest, demvà & sales – not khổng lồ clear unwanted items off the shelves.Credit: Are you going khổng lồ offer credit options lớn make large purchases and expenses more manageable for your customers?Payment methods: Which payment methods are you going lớn provide your target customers?Free or value-added elements: Which freebies, value-added elements & incentives are you going lớn use khổng lồ sweeten the khuyến mãi for your prospects.

Value is highly subjective sầu and the happiness of your customers with their purchases is determined far more by emotion than logic. As we’ve explained before in our articles on cognitive sầu biases, you can influence consumer perception with simple psychological techniques.

A comtháng example of this is software pricing pages where companies start with the most expensive sầu price on the left side of the page. This exploits a cognitive sầu weakness known as anchoring bias where people instinctively mix the first piece of information they see as mặc định, meaning any lower prices that follow naturally feel lượt thích good value.

#4: Place

Place is the final P in the original 4Ps Model and this traditionally refers lớn the place where customers physically buy products và services. Of course, in the digital age, things are a little more complex & we have sầu to expand the concept of place across multiple channels throughout the customer journey:

Discovery: The “places” both online và offline where potential customers discover your brvà và its products/services.

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Browsing: The locations where prospects can browse through your offers alongside competitors (eg: an online store) or within your own domain (eg: a product category on your website).Learn: Places where target audiences can learn more about your products or services, such as third-buổi tiệc ngọt đánh giá.Comparison: Where potential customers go to compare your offers against rival brands.Physical interaction: Any place where prospects are able lớn physically touch the product or service (if relevant) although this could apply to không tính phí trials và demos for digital products, too.Purchases: Online và offline locations where your customers can purchase from you.Customer services: The channels where customers can reach out for care after making the initial purchase.Retention: The channels you use lớn target customers after the initial purchase to lớn entice further sales.

Place in the digital age refers to every strategic location where potential customers engage with your brand và its sản phẩm or services – both before and after the sale.

The point is, you need to lớn control these locations, which starts with choosing the right channels of discovery khổng lồ capture new leads & then nurturing prospects along the sales funnel with targeted interactions.

#5: People

In today’s customer-centric approach to sale, you might assume “People” refers khổng lồ your target audiences, buyer personas & customers. However, the People in the 7Ps Mã Sản Phẩm actually refers to lớn the people within your organisation that interact with your customers – both directly & indirectly:

Marketers: The 7Ps Model highlights the importance of hiring the best talent for every position on your marketing team.Sales team members: These are the people who typically handle the first person-to-person interactions with your customers – and often seal the khuyến mãi.Customer service team: The individuals tasked with keeping your customers happy, even when things aren’t quite going to lớn plan.Recruitment: Hiring the best talent starts with having quality recruitment personnel.Training & skills: The people responsible for ensuring all of your team members encompass the brand ethos & meet your requirements.Managers: The people with people skills khổng lồ manage teams, get the best out of everyone và ensure you hit targets.

Chances are, you’ll have sầu several other groups or teams included in your People. Here at Venture Harbour, we’ve got the developers who build & demo our products, designers who create the best possible experience for our customers and a pool of freelancers we turn khổng lồ for a range of different tasks.

An overview of our team structure here at Venture Harbour

Everyone in our team contributes to building and delivering the best hàng hóa và experiences we can to our customers – & it’s important we recognise the value in that.

For more information on how to lớn build and manage a sale team effectively, you can read our guide:

#6: Process

Process in the 7Ps model refers lớn your processes for delivering the product or service lớn your customers, as well as any additional customer service and post-purchase systems you have sầu in place.

At the very least, you should have processes in place for the following:

Customer-kết thúc delivery: The customer’s process for attaining your hàng hóa or service, whether it’s ordered online và delivered via a courier, bought in-store, downloaded from your website or accessed through an online signup process.Business-end delivery: Your processes for facilitating customer-over delivery and safeguards for resolving any potential issues (eg: technical issues preventing online purchases).Customer service: Your processes, systems và channels for providing customer service beyond the initial sale.Resolutions: Your processes for dealing with problems that prevent usual delivery systems from completing successfully and instances where customers are unhappy with the process/service received.Incentives: Measures designed khổng lồ keep unhappy customers engaged with your br& so you can keep them on board and win them over.Returns và refunds: Your systems for dealing with returns, cancellations, refunds & any other processes for customers who refuse lớn stay on board.Feedback: Your processes for collecting customer feedbaông chồng & applying these insights khổng lồ product/service improvements.T&Cs: The terms and conditions that your customers agree khổng lồ, specifying your processes and protecting your business in any instance where things don’t go to lớn plan.

You have to carefully & strategically build processes for every customer interaction, down to lớn the finest detail. When your primary method of delivering products or services lớn your customers fails, you need a solid backup plan – và another one for when your Plan B fails, too.

Today’s customers have more options than ever and modern businesses need to satisfy these expectations – from delivery methods & payment options to lớn customer service channels & financial guarantees.

If you’re doing this properly, you’ll be forced lớn make some difficult decisions và it’s not always a question of doing what’s best for the customer. For example, you don’t want to lớn make it too easy for customers khổng lồ seek a refund, return items or cthua thảm accounts. You want to carefully add some friction here & there to provide crucial time for resolving issues and encourage continued use.

ActiveCampaign offers a range of tư vấn channels, prioritising online methods to make customer service more manageable.

Likewise, your customer service processes need khổng lồ be effective in terms of keeping customers on your side but they also need to lớn be affordable & it’s not always realistic lớn have sầu an in-house team of customer care staff sitting by the phones every day.

Once again, technology can help you strike the right balance between customer care & profitability – for example, using chatbots lớn handle the first interactions with customers. Likewise, personalised automated tin nhắn responses can cut the perceived time it takes for human team members to lớn liên hệ customers directly.

#7: Physical evidence

The final Phường in the 7Ps stands for Physical evidence and this used to refer khổng lồ actual physical items and forms of interaction: products, stores, receipts, packaging, bags and other branded items that could be seen và touched.

Of course, these are all forms for physical evidence today but, in the digital age, we have sầu khổng lồ reconsider our definition of “physical”.

So what does physical evidence really achieve?

Well, on one hand, it helps customers feel more confident that they’re dealing with a legitimate business before they make a purchase. A company with stores across the country, great products và nice packaging must be doing pretty well for itself &, surely, this wouldn’t be possible if they weren’t taking good care of their customers – right?

“Physical” evidence that my empty coffee capsules are going to be collected & recycled by Nespresso.

The second key role physical evidence plays is after the initial sale by providing customers with evidence that the transaction took place, their payment was received & their products or services will be delivered.

Places: This was the fourth P on our menu of 7Ps and these locations act as physical evidence – whether it’s your trang web, physical stores or trusted third-các buổi tiệc nhỏ platforms.Third-buổi tiệc nhỏ evidence: Customer Reviews, press coverage in major publications & positive sầu press are especially important in the digital age where simply having a trang web doesn’t provide the cấp độ of physical evidence real-world stores.Online experience: That said, the chất lượng of your website và the user experience it provides are crucial forms of physical evidence in the modern consumer journey.Feedback: Sales staff provide all kinds of feedbaông xã through conversation, facial expressions and body toàn thân language, which is lost in the online experience. So it’s important lớn thiết kế intuitive sầu feedbachồng inlớn the experience – everything from click confirmations & animations to lớn on-page feedbaông xã when forms are completed and payments are submitted.Order confirmation: Whether it’s physical receipts or confirmation emails, customers need lớn know their transactions are successful.Product packaging: Both the physical & digital packaging/branding of your products or services.

Physical evidence is primarily about easing consumer concerns và purchase anxieties by reassuring potential customers that your business is legitimate, their money is in good hands and the purchase is going khổng lồ go smoothly.

By providing feedbaông chồng across the entire customer journey, you can confirm that every little interaction is successful và build reassurance as they get closer to lớn putting their money on the line.

What are the limitations of the 7Ps model?

There’s no such thing as a perfect kinh doanh Model &, no matter how comprehensive a menu we make for each of the 7Ps, there’s no way it can cover every aspect of a digital sale strategy.

In fact, there are various different versions of an 8th Phường added to lớn the Mã Sản Phẩm of seven, depending on which marker you speak to lớn. As Smart Insights explains in this article, “An eighth P, ‘Partners’ is often recommended for businesses to gain reach online… although some would argue it’s part of Place.”

Other incarnations of a proposed 8Ps mã sản phẩm may include Performance, Productivity, Packaging or a range of other alliterated alternatives for the enigmatic title of the eighth Phường.

If this debate tells us anything, it’s that the 7Ps mã sản phẩm clearly has its limitations & there have been plenty of expansions or alternatives proposed in the past.

For me, the glaring omission in the 4Ps & 7Ps models is the lachồng of reference to lớn the end customer in both of them. In fact, on a broader scale, neither model even makes a reference khổng lồ market research & ensuring there’s a large enough target audience for the hàng hóa or a dem& for it.

I guess you could solve sầu this problem without changing the 7Ps mã sản phẩm by simply including customers in People & market research in Product. However, stronger alternatives have sầu been offered in “the age of the customer” while others can be used lớn expvà upon the 7Ps mã sản phẩm.

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Source: Consuunt

In 1990, Robert F. Lauterborn proposed his customer-centric alternative sầu to lớn the 4Ps model, which we can crudely điện thoại tư vấn the 4Cs:

Customer needsCostConvenienceCommunication

This offers a more customer-centric alternative to lớn the traditional 4Ps mã sản phẩm that feels a lot more suitable for the modern age. However, there are problems with simply replacing the Ps for Cs.

As we mentioned in the Process section earlier, if you only consider the customer in your delivery methods, you can easily overlook the business management side of things. Likewise, if you think of the customer with your customer service processes, then you can over up creating a system that hurts your bottom line – either by being too generous or overspending on your customer care systems.

While it sounds great khổng lồ talk about the customer experience as the priority (perhaps it should be), it’s not the only factor in a successful business, by any means – or a complete marketing strategy for that matter.

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As Hannah Tow suggests in her article for G2, we might be better off extending the 7Ps even further lớn include the 4Cs, allowing us khổng lồ look at Price from the business’ perspective sầu và also the Cost from the customer’s point of view.